Career Planning in Organization
Career planning in the organization is an effort that must be made for the continuity of the organization concerned. A career is all work (or position) that is owned (or held) during a person’s working life.
For many, those jobs are part of a carefully devised plan. For some, their careers may be just ‘fate’.
Career planning can’t always guarantee career success. Boss attitudes, experience, education, and also ‘fate’ play an important role in this issue. Nevertheless, career planning is necessary for employees to always be ready to use existing career opportunities.
Successful people are able to develop various career plans and then strive to achieve their plans. In short, careers must be managed through careful planning.
Otherwise, employees will often be unprepared to take advantage of various career opportunities, and personnel will face difficulties to meet the needs of the organization’s internal personnel preparation.
Behavioral science generally uses a career term with three understandings.
- A career as a lateral promotion or transfer order to more demanding positions or to better locations within or across the hierarchy of working relationships during one’s working life.
- A career as a pointer to the work that forms a pattern of progress that is systemic and clear – a career path. For example, in the data processing profession, career paths usually begin with computer operators and then escalate into junior programmers, senior programmers, junior analysts and programmers, analysts and programmers, system analysts, senior analysts, project leaders, system department managers, and deputy directors of information services.
- A career as a history of a person’s work, or a series of positions he holds during his or her working life. In this context, everyone with their work history is said to have a career.
Not a few people fail to manage their careers, because they don’t pay attention to these basic concepts of career planning. They don’t understand that career goals can spur their careers and result in greater success.
Understanding these concepts does not guarantee activity, but if it leads to the setting of career goals, career planning is more likely to take place.
Department of Personnel and Career Planning
Personnel departments should be able to take an active role in employee career planning. Career planning needs to be addressed because human resources plans demonstrate the various needs of the organization’s staffing in the future and related to career opportunities.
In addition, personnel managers are always interested in training or development opportunities. Various benefits that will be obtained when personnel are involved in career planning, namely:
- Develop Employees who can be Promoted. Career planning helps to develop an internal employee supply.
- Decrease Employee Turnover. attention to individual careers will increase organizational loyalty and, therefore, decrease employee turnover.
- Uncovering Employee Potential. Career planning encourages employees to further explore their potential abilities because they have specific career goals.
- Encouraging Growth. Various career plans and goals motivate employees to grow and develop.
- Reduce Hoarding. Without career planning, managers will easily “hoard” key subordinates who are skilled and high-achieving. Career planning causes employee managers and personnel departments to become aware of employee qualifications.
- Satisfying Employee Needs. With less hoarding and increased opportunities to grow for employees, individual reward needs, such as awards and achievements, will be more satisfied.
- Assisting the Implementation of Approved Activity Plans. Career planning can help group members be ready for more important positions. This preparation will help achieve approved activity plans.
In practice, the personnel section encourages career planning in three ways: through career education, information provision, and counseling.
In reality, many employees lack or don’t know about career planning. They often do not know the needs and advantages of career planning.
Employees also often have the information necessary to make their career plans successful. The personnel department is tasked with addressing both limitations.
Personnel departments can raise employee awareness of the importance of career planning through a wide range of educational techniques. For example, briefing speeches, circulars, and memorandums from top managers can stimulate employees at low cost.
In addition, workshops and seminars on career planning increase employee interest by presenting basic concepts related to career planning.
Such activities can help employees set career goals, identify career paths and uncover career development efforts.
These career education activities can be supplemented by printed or recorded career planning information. If the personnel department does not have the necessary staff to carry out educational programs, the company can use consultants.
Information on Career Planning
The personnel department ideally provides employees with the information they need to plan a career. Most of this information has been available as part of human resource information systems.
For example, job descriptions and specifications are very useful information for an employee who is trying to estimate his or her career goals. The personnel department can also identify future job openings through staffing plans.
If different jobs require the same skills, then it is called job families. Career paths in a “family” job require a little extra training because the skills of each job are very related.
With the availability of information about “family” work, employees can find a variety of feasble career paths. They can then evaluate those career paths by asking other employees who have held positions along the way.
Personnel departments can also encourage career planning through providing information on alternative career paths. This information also includes requirements that must be met.
To help employees set career goals and determine the right paths, the personnel department can offer career guidance. This guidance should be done by capable advisers as a source of target.
Advisers or counselors may only need to listen to the interests of employees providing certain employment information. Or mentors can help employees uncover their interests by conducting and interpreting talent and skills tests.
Career advisers need to realize that a career is only part of a person’s life plan, so the suggested career plan should be an integral part of that life plan. This means that career guidance improves employee self-assessment.
In addition to life plans, self-assessment also includes self-supplies. The components of self-supply concern all talents and work interests, as well as various skills and skills of employees.
If career advisers can obtain detailed and honest self-evaluation results, then this will help to concentrate their thinking on their strengths and weaknesses.
Then employees can also combine their abilities and desires with available career information.
A career plan that combines an employee’s wishes with a career path that best fits reality can be detrimental when environmental factors are ignored.
Therefore, career advisers need to inform employees of possible environmental changes that will affect their careers. For example, changes in word procesing technology will affect the careers of employees in typing.
Employee Career Development
The implementation of career plans requires career development. According to T. hani Handoko, career development is an employee’s personal efforts to achieve a career plan.
These activities may be supported by the personnel department, or do not depend on the department. Here are the ways that employees can use in career development, and then detail the role of personnel departments in these activities.
Individual Career Development
The starting point of career development starts with the employee. Each person is responsible for the development or progress of their respective careers. Once a personal commitment is made, several career development activities can be made. These activities include:
- Work Performance. The most important activity to advance an employee’s career is good work achievement, as it underlies all other career development activities. Career progress depends heavily on performance.
- Exposure. The progress of a career is also determined by exposure. Exposure means being famous by people who decide on promotions, transfers and other career opportunities. Without exposure, employees who perform well, may not get the opportunity to achieve their career goals. Managers get exposure through achievements, written reports, oral presentations, committee work, community service, or even the length of their working hours.
- Stop Request. If an employee sees greater career opportunities elsewhere, quitting may be a way to achieve career goals. Many employees, especially professional managers, move around the company as part of their career strategy. When it’s done effectively, they usually get new promotions, raises, and experiences. Stop requests to continue a career at another company are often called leveraging. However, if this technique is overused it will be detrimental to the employee himself.
- Organizational Loyalty. In many organizations, people put career progress on depending on organizational loyalty. Low organizational loyalty is generally found in new scholars (who have high expectations, so are often disappointed with their first company) and professionals (whose first loyalty is to their profession). Long-term dedication to the same company will lower the rate of workforce turnover.
- Mentors And Sponsors. A mentor is someone who offers informal career guidance. Employees or mentors within the company realize that the relationship between them exists and is useful for career development. If a mentor can nominate an employee for career development activities, such as training programs, transfers, or promotions, then he or she becomes a sponsor. A sponsor is someone in an organization that can create development opportunities for others. Often employee sponsors are direct employers.
- Opportunities to Grow. When employees improve, for example through training programs, course-taking or degree additions, then they take advantage of the opportunity to grow. This is useful, both with personnel departments in the development of internal human resources and for the achievement of employee career plans.
The Role of the Department of Personnel in Career Development
Career development ideally depends not only on individual efforts, because it is not always in accordance with the interests of the organization. For example, employees may ask to quit and move to another company. Or employees can be indifferent to their career opportunities and organizational staffing needs.
To direct career development to benefit organizations and employees, personnel departments often conduct training and development programs for employees.
In addition, the personnel department needs to work on management support, provide feedback to employees and build a cohesive work environment to improve employees’ ability and desire to carry out career development.
Various personnel department efforts to encourage career development will have little impact without the support of managers. Commitments by top management are crucial to getting the support of other managers.
Without feedback on their career development efforts it is difficult for employees to continue the years of preparation sometimes needed to achieve career goals. Personnel departments can provide this feedback in several ways.
The first is to inform employees periodically about their work performance. To carry this out, many personnel departments develop various evaluation procedures.
When work performance is poor, this feedback allows employees to improve their efforts or adjust their interior development plans.
Other types of feedback relate to placement programs. An old un promoted will feel that his career development is useless.
Candidates who do not succeed in filling internal job openings should be told why they have not gained a career opportunity. This feedback has three objectives:
- To assure un promoted employees that they are still valuable and will be considered for future promotions, if they are “qualifier”.
- To explain why they were not elected.
- To show what career development activities should be taken.
Cohesive working groups
For employees who want to achieve a career in the organization, they must feel that the organization is a satisfactory environment.
If they feel part of a cohesive working group, their career development efforts will be more targeted towards improving career opportunities within the organization.
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